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Magazine Industry Glossary

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Numeric


additive color:
Color produced by combining red, green, and blue light in varying intensities. Computer monitors use additive color, while the printing process uses subtractive color. This causes inconsistency between what a designer sees on the monitor and what comes off the printing press.

airbrush (verb):
To retouch photographic images with dye sprayed from a small, high-pressure gun (also known as an airbrush, noun). Similar retouching can be performed digitally with the use of image-manipulation software.

anti-alias:
In digital typography, the manipulation of gray levels around the edges of a letterform to minimize its jagged appearance when shown on-screen or output at low resolutions.

artifact:
A visible defect in a scanned image, usually caused by hardware or software limitations.

artwork:
Any portion of a published piece that is not text.

art direction:
A term used to describe the process of conceiveing and directing the creation or acquisition of art (i.e., phots and illustrations) for a magazine story or other editorial component.

art production:
A term used to describe the process of preparing images, copy and/or layouts for print production. This task typically involves image enhancement, kerning of type, making sure files conform to the printer's requirements, etc.

ascender:
The portion of a letter that rises above its x-height (the height of a lowercase "x" in a particular typeface).

author's alterations:
Changes in copy or artwork after it has been typeset and sent to the printer, often called AAs. These types of changes frequently cost extra; the additional costs incurred by AAs are charged to the client, not the printer.

automatic image replacement:
A process in which low-resolution FPO (For Position Only) images are automatically replaced by high-resolution images before outputting the final pages.

back matter:
The contents of a book that appears after the main text; may include an afterword, appendix, colophon, glossary, and index.

bad break:
An unattractive or illogical beginning or end of a page, a line of type, or a poorly hyphenated word.

banding:
An undesirable graphic effect in which a gradation contains visible stepping of shades.

banner:
The name of a publication as it is displayed on the cover. Also known as the Logo.

bar code:
A series of vertical lines that identify the magazine, the 
magazine's publisher, and the magazine's price.

baseline:
The imaginary line on which the letters in a line of type appear to rest.

basis weight:
The weight in pounds of a ream (500 sheets) of paper cut to a standard size according to the grade of paper.

Bézier curve:
A curve used in illustration programs that provides control handles for manipulating the shape of an arc.

binder's creep:
The slight but cumulative extension of the edges of each inserted spread or signature in a saddle-stitched publication.

bindery:
The area or department within a printing plant that handles trimming and binding.

binding:
The fastening of assembled sheets or signatures along one edge of a publication. The binding process also includes folding, gathering, trimming, stitching, gluing, and/or casing.

bio:
Short for biography. The brief description of an author's life and/or publication history that appears in the back matter of a book.

bitmapped graphic:
A matrix of dots, or pixels, all of the same density, that forms an image. Bitmap is also a non-color file format.

black letter:
The Gothic type style popular in Germany in the 15th century.

black plate:
Also referred to as black printer, this printing plate is used along with cyan, magenta, and yellow plates in four-color (CMYK) process printing. Also called the key plate, its purpose is to enrich the contrast of the final reproduction.

black-and-white:
Originals or reproductions in which black is the only color, as opposed to one-color (which can be any single color), two-color, four-color, or more.

bleed:
The portion of an image that extends beyond the trim area of a page.

blow up (verb):
To enlarge an image, either photographically or digitally.

blueprint:
A photoprint made from stripped-up film negatives or  positives that is used as a proof to check the position of page elements before printing. Also called a blueprint.

blurb:
A short quote or announcement.

body copy:
The majority of the copy in a book, magazine article, or marketing piece, as opposed to headline copy. Also known as text.

body type:
A particular font used for the main text of a printed piece, as opposed to headline type or caption type.

bold:
A set of type or font that is heavier (thicker or darker) than the text type of the same typeface. Short for boldface.

boldface:
A set of type that is heavier (thicker or darker) than the text type of the same typeface. Also called bold.

book paper:
A grade of coated or uncoated paper used in books.

booklet:
A publication of less than 48 pages.

break for color:
To separate the parts of a piece to be printed in different colors.

brightness:
The reflective quality or brilliance of a piece of paper. In color, the amount of light reflected by a particular color.

BRC:
Business Reply Card, usually stitched, blown or glued into a publication, in which the postage has been pre-paid by the original sender. Typically used for subscription orders, surveys, etc.

BRM:
Business Reply Mail. Return postcards or envelopes in which the postage has been pre-paid by the original sender.

broadside:
A large, tabloid-size advertising circular.

brochure:
A pamphlet of two or more pages that is folded or bound.

bronzing:
 A printing technique in which an image is printed with a sizing ink, then bronze powder is applied while the ink is still wet to produce a metallic effect.

browser:
A software application that lets you navigate and view online information, such as World Wide Web pages.

buckling:
An undesirable effect that occurs when a sheet of paper has been improperly printed or folded, causing wrinkles.

bulk mail:
A class of mail sent by the U.S. Postal Service at a discount rate for business mail of at least 200 pieces that has been sorted by zip code.

bullet:
A small black circle or similar graphic used in front of items in a list, often called a bullet list.

burn:
To expose a plate when making printing plates.

byline:
The author's name as it appears under the title or at the end of an article or story.

byte:
A unit of digital information equivalent to eight bits or one character.

C1S:
Coated One Side. Paper that has a coating, or finish, on only one side, often used for book covers.

C2S:
Coated Two Sides. Paper that has a coating, or finish, on both sides.

calibrate:
To adjust an input device such as a scanner or an output device such as a monitor, imagesetter, or printing press to more accurately reproduce color.

caliper:
The thickness of paper, usually expressed in mils (thousands of an inch).

callout:
Text that explains or amplifies a portion of an illustration, usually accompanied by a line pointing to a particular area.

camera-ready:
Artwork that is ready to be photographed in preparation for platemaking. While almost obsolete, this term is also used to describe digital advertising files that are properly formated and ready to drop into a layout.

caps:
A set of capital letters of a particular typeface.

caption:
Text that accompanies an illustration. Also called a cutline.

CD-ROM:
Compact Disc-Read Only Memory. Used for storing and retrieving digital, visual, and audio information.

character:
An individual letter, number, punctuation mark, symbol, or space within text or computer code.

choke:
A trapping technique in which one color area is made slightly smaller, used in conjunction with another trapping technique called a "spread," in which another color area is made slightly larger to allow for misregistration on press.

cicero:
A European typographic unit of measurement; approximately 4.55 millimeters, though it varies from country to country.

circular:
An advertising flier inserted into a newspaper.

circulation:
The number of readers of a periodical such as a magazine or newspaper.

classified ad:
An advertisement that uses only text, as opposed to a display ad, which also incorporates graphics.

clean copy:
Copy that is ready to be typeset, or copy that has already been typeset and contains no further corrections.

clip art:
Illustrations, line drawings, pictures and other graphics that can be inserted in artwork or in a page layout, usually royalty-free. Before digital clip art, artwork from paper books was actually cut, or clipped, from the page and pasted onto the layout, thus the name clip art.

clipboard:
Temporary holding place in a computer's memory used to move text and graphics from one electronic document to another.

CMYK:
Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, Black. The colors of the subtractive color system, also known as process colors.

coated:
Paper with a certain type of finish that produces a smooth surface.

coating:
An emulsion, varnish, or lacquer applied to a printed surface to give it added protection or to produce a dramatic special effect.

cold color:
A color such as blue.

collate:
To assemble a set of individual sheets or signatures in proper sequence for binding.

color control strip:
A series of color bars and patterns printed on press sheets designed to help press operators detect problems with color balance, registration, and other printing-related problems.

color correct:
To change the color values in a set of film separations or using a software application to correct or compensate for errors in photography, scanning, separation, output, and so on.

color key:
A means of proofing four-color pages before final reproduction.

color palette:
A selection of complementary colors chosen for a design.

color proof:
A reproduction of a piece before it goes on press made by photomechanical or digital means in less time and at a lower cost than press proofs. Also called an off-press proof.

color separation:
The process of separating artwork into component films of cyan, magenta, yellow, and black in preparation for printing.

comb-bound:
A form of binding that uses plastic rings and allows the book to lay flat when open, often used in cookbooks.

commercial printer:
A printer who primarily manufactures print runs of 5,000 or more using larger printing presses than those found in a quick-copy shop.

commercial register:
A measure of color printing in which the allowable misregister is plus or minus one row of dots.

comp:
A designer's "comprehensive" sketch of a page design that shows what the final page may look like.

compress:
To reduce the size of a digital file for the purpose of speedier file transfer and archiving.

condensed:
A narrow version of a typeface, or a shortened version of a book-length work.

content edit:
An overall evaluation and critique of a manuscript for organization, style, and continuity as well as actual content.

contents:
The list of a magazine's features and departments that appears as part of the front matter. Also called a Table of Contents.

continuous tone:
An image that has an assortment of tone values ranging from dark to light that does not contain halftone dots. A photograph is a continuous-tone image, for example, while a pen-and-ink drawing (also known as line art) formed of pure blacks and whites, is not. Also called a con-tone.

contract proof:
A proof provided by the printer and on which the client signs off, saying it is OK to go ahead with printing.

co-op advertising:
Where two organizations, such as a bookseller and a publisher, share the cost of advertising. The publisher usually pays the larger percentage.

co-op publishing:
A situation in which two organizations produce and publish a book together. Also called co-publishing.

co-publishing:
A situation in which two organizations produce and publish a book together. Also called co-op publishing.

copy:
The text portion of material to be printed.

copy edit:
The next level of editing after content editing--checking a manuscript for spelling, grammar, punctuation, and consistency. Typically, copy editors will adhere to a specified style guide, such as the AP (Associated Press) style guide.

copyfit:
The process of adding or 
eliminating actual words and sentences to make the copy fit a given amount of space on a page layout.

copyright:
The right to retain or sell the rights to an artistic work, usually held by the creator of the work.

copyright infringement:
When another party besides the copyright owner reproduces a copyrighted work, in whole or in part, without the copyright owner's permission.

cover:
The front outside page of a magazine.
Also refered to as Cover 1.

cover paper:
A variety of heavier papers used as covers for booklets, catalogs, brochures, presentations, and other publications. Also called cover stock.

cover stock:
A variety of heavier papers used for the covers of catalogs, brochures, booklets, and similar publications. Also called cover paper.

creep:
The process of compensating for the shifting position of the pages in a saddle-stitched bind. Creep moves the inside pages or signatures toward the spine.

crop:
To eliminate outer portions of a photograph, illustration, or plate. Cropping is indicated on the original with crop marks.

crop mark:
A set of horizontal and vertical lines which indicate where a photograph, illustration, or page should be eliminated or trimmed.

cutline:
A short sentence or two that describes a photograph or illustration within a page layout. Also called a caption.

cyan:
One of the subtractive primary colors used as part of the four-color process inks (cyan, magenta, yellow, and black).

deck copy:
The text found underneath the headline of an article or story that provides slightly more detail than the headline and is set in a smaller point size than the headline but larger than the body text. Also called deck or subhead.

defamation:
Libelous or slanderous statements that cause injury to another person.

densitometer:
A photomechanical tool that measures optical density of images or colors, used to determine and control consistency throughout a press run.

density:
The degree of darkness of a photographic image.

descender:
The portion of a letter that extends below the baseline.

design:
The task of arranging art, text and other graphic elements on a page. See also "layout."

die:
A metal plate cut in the shape of the master image used to make cuts in printed sheets.

die cut:
The technique of using sharp steel rules to make cuts in printed sheets for boxes, folders, pop-up brochures, and other specialized printing jobs.

digerati:
A play on the word "literati" that describes the hip, knowledgeable people at the cutting edge of all things digital.

dingbat:
An ornamental character such as a bullet, star, or flower used by printers to decorate a page.

direct mail:
A form of advertising in which the published matter is mailed directly to the potential customer.

dirty copy:
Copy that has been marked up by editors or proofreaders and requires further corrections.

display ad:
An advertisement that uses graphics, as opposed to a classified ad, which uses only text.

display type:
Type that is set larger than the body type, used to attract attention to headlines, deck copy, callouts, pull quotes, and the like.

distributor:
A company that warehouses and ships books or magazines to retail outlets.

dithering:
A technique used on computer screens and low-resolution output devices to produce a higher quality image in which the halftone cells are arranged in an overlapping pattern.

dot:
The single, most basic element of a halftone.

dot leader:
A series of dots in a horizontal line that guide the reader's eye from one word or phrase on the left to a page number or other text on the right, such as in a Table of Contents.

double-sided:
Printing on both sides of a sheet of paper.

download:
To retrieve a file from another computer, as opposed to upload, which means to send a file to another computer.

down time:
The period of time in which a printing press or computer is not in use.

DPI:
Dots Per Inch. A measure of an output device's resolution, such as a monitor or laser printer.

drier:
Any substance added to ink to make it dry more quickly.

drop cap:
An initial cap that "drops" below the first baseline.

drop shadow:
A graphic effect in which display type is repeated behind itself, creating a "shadow."

drop-out:
Portions of originals that are not reproduced, such as background areas or lines around the edges of an image.

dull finish:
A flat coating applied to paper that is slightly smoother than a matte coating.

dummy:
A preliminary layout showing the size, shape, form, and general style of a printed piece, including folds.

duotone:
A two-color halftone reproduction from a black-and-white photograph.

edit:
To modify and correct a manuscript to conform to the publisher's standards.

editor in chief:
The top editor at a magazine or book publisher responsible for all editorial decisions.

eight-up:
The imposition of eight items to be printed on the same sheet in order to take advantage of full press capacity and minimize paper consumption.

ellipsis:
A unit of three small dots that signifies a trailing off in thought or portions of a quote that have been omitted.

elliptical dot:
An elongated dot in halftone photography that gives improved gradation of tones, especially in middle tones and vignettes.

em:
A measurement of linear space used by typographers in which the unit is as wide and as high as the point size being set; twice the width of an en. So named because the letter "m" in early fonts was usually cast on a square body.

em dash:
A dash the width of an em space.

emboss:
To impress an image in relief to achieve a raised surface; either overprinting or on blank paper (called blind embossing).

emoticon:
A symbol that uses the characters on a computer keyboard to convey emotion or tone in an electronic message, such as the sideways smiley face. :-)

en:
A measurement of linear space used by typographers; half the width of an em.

en dash:
A dash the width of an en space.

enlargement:
An image or page that has been increased in size proportionally.

epilogue:
Text that appears at the end of a story which brings the reader up to date or offers parting comments, as opposed to a prologue, which appears at the beginning of a story and offers introductory comments.

EPS:
Encapsulated PostScript. An image file format that contains PostScript information for high-resolution graphics.

etch:
To produce an image on a printing plate by chemical or electrolytic action.

excerpt:
A portion taken from a larger work, such as when portions of a book appear as a magazine article.

exclusive:
Sole distribution or publishing rights given to or sold to only one distributor or publisher in a particular geographic area. Also a news or feature article published by a publication before any of its competitors.

expanded type:
A typeface in which the width is greater than normal.

exposure:
The process during which light produces an image on light-sensitive photographic paper or film.

facing page:
A page that forms a spread.

fair use:
The legal use of a limited portion of copyrighted material without permission from the copyright owner for the purpose of newswriting, for example.

fanout:
The distortion of paper on press due to absorption of moisture at the edges of the paper.

finish:
The surface characteristics of paper, such as machine finish or english finish.

flat (adjective):
An image that is lacking in contrast.

flat (noun):
Completely assembled film ready for platemaking.

flop:
To flip an image so that it appears reversed.

flush:
To align text or images along one edge of a page layout.

flush cover:
A cover that has been trimmed the same size as the inside, bound text pages, such as on a perfect-bound book.

flush left:
Lines of type that are aligned along the left margin of a page, leaving the right edge ragged. Also called rag right.

flush paragraph:
A paragraph with no indentation.

flush right:
Lines of type that are aligned along the right margin of a page, leaving the left edge ragged. Also called right justified

FOB:
Free On Board. Often used when delivering printed materials, in the context of "Free On Board origin," which means the addressee pays the shipping costs, or "Free On Board destination," which means the shipper pays the shipping costs.

folio:
A page number, often placed at the top of a page outside the running head. If placed at the bottom of the page, the number is a drop folio.

font:
A complete typeface design in any or all point sizes.

footer:
A headline title or other special text that appears at the bottom of a page.

foreign rights:
A subsidiary right that allows the book to be translated and published in countries other than the one in which the book was originally published.

form:
The assembly of pages for offset printing. Also refered to as a signature.

format (noun):
The size, style, number of pages, and other printing requirements of a piece to be printed.

format (verb):
To apply and style font to raw copy in a layout.

four-color or 4/C:
A publication that is created using four colors, usually, but not always, printed with cyan, magenta, yellow, and black.

four-up:
The imposition of four items to be printed on the same sheet in order to take advantage of full press capacity and minimize paper consumption.

FPO:
For Position Only. A low-resolution or simulated version of a graphic that is used only as a placeholder and not for final reproduction.

freelance:
To work on a client-by-client and job-by-job basis, as opposed to being employed full-time by one particular company.

front matter:
The pages of a book or magazine before the main text, such as title page, copyright page, Table of Contents, masthead, and so on.

FTP:
File Transfer Protocol. A means of uploading and accessing files on the Internet.

fulfillment:
The process of filling orders for a book or magazine through order taking, packing, shipping, and collecting payment.

galley:
A typeset draft used for proofreading copy and estimating text length, sometimes sent to book reviewers.

gamma:
A measure of contrast in photographic images.

gang (verb):
To combine unrelated jobs on one printing plate in order to save costs and setup charges.

gang run:
A print run in which two or more print jobs are combined on one printing plate in order to economize.

gatefold:
A type of fold in which the paper is folded toward its center to form four or more panels.

generation:
Each succeeding stage in reproduction from the original copy.

genre:
A category of a certain type of writing, such as horror, romance, mystery, science fiction, and so forth.

ghost writer:
A professional writer who writes for another person and who does not get a byline or credit for his or her writing.

GIF:
Graphics Interchange Format, originally created by the online service CompuServe to help users minimize file-transfer times when transmitting bitmapped images, currently supported by a growing number of Macintosh and PC graphics applications.

gloss:
A shiny coating applied to a printed piece.

glossy:
A photograph, image, or other printed material with a shiny surface, as opposed to matte, which is a dull surface.

grain:
The direction in which the fibers in a sheet of paper have been made on a paper machine.

gradation:
A smooth transition of shades between black and white, between one color and another, or between one color and white. Also called a gradient.

graphic:
Any illustrative element in a page layout, such as a photograph, illustration, icon, ruled line, or any other non-text element.

grayscale:
The range of gray tones between black and white as displayed on a monitor or in an image. Black and white photos are typiclly refered to as grayscale.

greeked text:
Body text that is made illegible when viewed at 12 points or below, for the purpose of speeding screen redraw or creating a rough layout.

grid:
The cross-ruled transparent guidelines over which all parts of a page layout will be assembled. See also "underlying grid."

gutter:
The inner margins of two facing pages or columns in a publication.

H&J:
Hyphenation and Justification. An algorithm that determines line endings and spacing, used by typesetting systems and page layout programs. Sophisticated programs allow the user to adjust H&J parameters.

hairline:
A finely ruled line, measuring one half (0.5) point.

hairline rule:
A finely ruled line, measuring one half (0.5) point.

halation:
An undesirable blurred effect in photographs that resembles a halo, usually occurring in highlighted areas or around bright objects.

halftone:
The reproduction of continuous-tone artwork, such as a photograph, by screening the image into dots of various sizes. When printed, the dots merge to give the illusion of continuous tone.

hanging indent:
When the first line of a paragraph starts to the left of the rest of the lines of the paragraph.

hanging quote:
When the left quote symbol of a paragraph starts to the left of the rest of the lines of the paragraph.


hard copy:
The tangible output, usually on laser paper or photographic paper, from an electronic file.

hard hyphen:
A permanent hyphen that is manually inserted in a word, as opposed to a soft hyphen, which is inserted using a software command and which would go away if the text were to reflow.

hard proof:
A proof on tangible output, such as laser paper, film, or photographic paper, as opposed to a soft proof, which is an image on a computer monitor.

hard return:
A permanent return that is manually inserted at the end of a line of text, as opposed to a soft return, which is inserted using a software command and which would go away if the text were to reflow.

head:
Short for headline. The display-size text at the top of an article or story.

header:
A headline or title that appears at the top of a page.

headline:
The display-size text, usually placed at the top of an article or advertisement, that summarizes the message or acts as an attention-getter.

Hexachrome:
A recently introduced six-color process printing system from Pantone, Inc.

Hi-Fi Color:
Short for High-Fidelity Color. A term that describes any color specification and printing system that enhances the traditional four-color process system, such as Hexachrome.

hickey:
A spot or imperfection in a printed piece due to such things as dirt on the press and loose paper particles.

high contrast:
A photographic reproduction that contains higher density levels than usual.

highlight:
The lightest or whitest parts of a photograph.

horizontal format:
A page or image that is in landscape orientation, to be viewed horizontally.

HSL:
Hue, Saturation, and Lightness.

hue:
The attribute of a color that distinguishes it from other colors.

hyphenation & justification:
The process of deciding where to break words and lines of text on a page, done automatically via h&j algorithms in page layout programs.

inside back cover:
The opposite side of the back cover in a magazine, booklet, or brochure. Also refered to as Cover 3.

icon:
Miniature pictures, on-screen or in printed material, that represent a single function, object, or idea.

Inside Front Cover:
The opposite side of the front cover of a magazine, booklet, or brochure.
Also refered to as Cover 2.

illustration:
Usually describes line art drawings, but can also be used to describe photographs and other illustrative artwork.

image area:
The area of a page that can be printed upon, surrounded by non-image areas, or margins.

image editing:
The process of changing and manipulating photographs and other graphics, usually performed electronically using software applications such as Adobe Photoshop.

imagesetter:
A class of typesetters that can reproduce graphics as well as type at high-resolution onto photo-sensitive paper or film.

impose:
To arrange and position pages in order to meet press, folding, and bindery requirements.

imposition:
A layout of how pages need to be positioned in order to meet press, folding, and bindery requirements.

in-house:
Functions performed within the company rather than by outside contractors.

InDesign:
A popular software program, from Adobe, used by designers to assemble text and graphics on a page. In recent years, InDesign has rivaled QuarkXpress as the prefered layout software in the magazine industry. InDesign replaced Adobe Pagemaker, which was Adobe's original layout software.


infringement:
When another party besides the copyright owner reproduces a copyrighted work, in whole or in part, without the copyright owner's permission.

initial cap:
A capital letter at the beginning of a paragraph that rests on the first  baseline and rises above the x-height of the other letters.

insert:
A printed piece that is not part of the original publication but is bound into a magazine, newspaper, or other printed piece.

insertion order:
An order form used by advertising agencies and ad sales reps to fulfill an advertiser's request to place an ad in a specific issue or series of issues of a publication.

italic:
A style of type in which the letterforms slant toward the right, used for emphasis and titles of books, magazines, and so forth.

jaggies:
An undesirable condition in which the edges of an image or text have a stair-stepped, or jagged appearance.

JPEG:
Joint Photographic Experts Group, a sophisticated lossy compression technique for reducing the amount of data needed to describe a full-color, bitmap image.

jump:
To continue an article or story from one page to the next.

jump line:
A phrase indicating on what page a story is continued from or to.

justified:
Text in which both the right and left margins are aligned.

justify:
To set lines of text so that the left and right margins are aligned.

kern:
To adjust the space between letters so that it appears optically proportioned.

key:
A color-coded legend that explains symbols or identifies colors to be printed in a piece of artwork, such as a color key.

keyline:
Artwork for offset reproduction that shows outlines indicating the exact shape, position, and size of halftone elements and line sketches.

kill fee:
The money paid to a writer when the publication has contracted with the writer to write an article, but the article is never published.

knock-out:
To remove the background color on which type or graphics are being printed, as opposed to an overprint.

kraft:
A brown paper or board containing unbleached wood pulp, causing its brown color.

lacquer:
A clear coating, usually glossy, applied to a printed piece for protection or special effect.

landscape:
An image or page that is horizontally oriented, as opposed to portrait, which is vertically oriented.

lay-flat binding:
A form of binding perfect-bound publications inw hich the cover spine is not actually glued to the edges of the bound pages so the book lays flatter when opened. Also called stay-flat binding.

layout (noun):
The compilation of text and graphics on a page.

layout (verb):
The task of arranging art, text and other graphic elements on a page. See also "design."

layout program:
A software program used by designers to assemble text and graphics on a page, in preparation for print or other output. The most commonly used software applications are QuarkXpress and Adobe's InDesign.

leader:
See dot leader.

leading:
The space between lines of type, often measured from the baseline of one line to the baseline of the next, and less frequently measured from ascender to ascender. Dates back to hot metal days when strips of lead were inserted between lines of type to provide line spacing.

letterform:
The individual characters in a particular typeface.

letterpress:
The oldest printing method, in which the image to be printed is raised from the plate, inked, and applied directly to paper.

libel:
Written defamation that causes injury to another person.

Library of Congress:
The national library serving the United States Congress.

Library of Congress Catalog Card number:
A unique number assigned by the Library of Congress to a given work for cataloging and identification purposes.

ligature:
Two letters joined together to form a new character, such as "fi" and "fl."

light table:
A table made especially for working with negatives, viewing transparencies and slides, and pasting up artwork, that has a translucent top with a light shining up through it.

line art:
Illustrations composed of black and white with no shades of gray.

line break:
The place at the end of a line of text where one word or part of a word ends and before the next word or continuation of the previous word begins on a new line.

line copy:
Text that is suitable for reproduction without using a halftone screen.

line drawing:
A black-and-white drawing with no shades of gray. Also called line art.

logo:
Short for logotype.

logotype:
A graphic treatment of text, or a combination of text and graphics, that identifies a company or a product. Also the text portion of a logo.

lowercase:
The small letters of a typeface, as opposed to the capital letters, or uppercase letters. Derived from the location of the type cases in which typographers used to store metal or wood letterforms.

LPI:
Lines Per Inch. The number of rows of halftone cells per inch, also referred to as screen frequency. The finer the frequency, the less noticeable the halftone dots.

magenta:
One of the subtractive primary colors (cyan, magenta, yellow, and black) used for four-color process inks.

mail fulfillment:
To fulfill orders for merchandise such as books and magazines via mail.

makegood:
A free ad that is run in a publication in order to "make good" on an ad that was previously run in an incorrect fashion, such as in the wrong position or one that contained an error caused by the publisher.

makeready:
The process of preparing the press for printing a particular job, such as putting ink in the fountains, adjusting the feeder and grippers, and so on.

manuscript:
The raw copy for a book or magazine article (either handwritten or computer-generated) before it is edited and typeset.

margin:
The white space surrounding the image area of a page.

masthead:
The section of a newspaper or magazine that lists the publication's staff, ownership, subscription details, and so on.

Matchprint:
A reproduction made from film for the purpose of proofing four-color materials to be printed.

matte finish:
A type of surface or coating that is dull, without gloss or luster.

mechanical:
Camera-ready artwork that includes text, photos, illustrations, and so forth. A mechanical can be in the form of an artboard, a digital printout, or a digital file ready for high-resolution output.

mechanical specs:
Typically refered to in the magazine industry as the physical requirements (i.e., size, file format, color requirements, etc,) for display advertisements.

media:
The means by which information is distributed such as print, broadcast,  CD-ROM, World Wide Web, and so forth.

media kit:
Sheets of information about a publication's advertising rates, mechanical specification, circualtion, etc., enclosed in a presentation folder. Typically, copies of past issues are included

mockup:
A visual presentation of a design or page layout that approximates what the final printed piece might look like.

monochrome:
A one-color image or page.

monograph:
A brief report on a particular subject.

montage:
Several photographs or images arranged together to form one complete piece of art.

negative:
Film in which the dark areas of the images or text appear light and the light areas of the images or text appear dark.

news release:
An announcement of a new book or a new product sent to a news organization for publication.

newsprint:
Paper in which the main ingredient is groundwood pulp, used for printing newspapers and similar publications.

object-oriented:
Graphics defined by groups of lines, circles, text, and other objects (thus the "object-oriented" label), as opposed to bitmapped graphics, which are defined by pixels. Also called vector graphics.

OCR:
Optical Character Recognition. The process of reproducing hardcopy output into digital format.

off-press proof:
Proofs made by photomechanical means, such as a Cromalin or Matchprint, and sometimes by digital means, in less time and at a lower cost than it takes to create press proofs. Also called prepress proofs.

offset lithography:
One of the most popular forms of printing in which negatives are used to create a photographic plate that is wrapped around a press cylinder. Ink adheres only to the exposed portion of the plate, is passed onto a second cylinder, and then onto paper. Also called offset.

on spec:
To create a design or to write copy without being paid but with the intent to garner a contract for a particular job.

one-up:
To impose only one item at a time to be printed on a sheet.

opacity:
A property of paper or other substrate that minimizes show-through, which is the amount of ink printed on one side of a sheet that shows through the other side.

opaque (noun):
The property of paper that makes it less transparent.

ornament:
A small decorative device such as an initial capital letter (initial cap) or a dingbat. Also called printer's ornaments.

orphan:
The end of a paragraph or beginning of a column of text that is undesirably short:
a single, short word or the end of a hyphenated word. See widow.

out-of-register:
An undesirable occurrence in which the color separations for an image were not properly aligned, causing text and colors to appear slightly off.

over the transom:
Unsolicited manuscripts or queries sent to a publisher by authors.

overhang cover:
A cover that is larger in size than the interior pages.

overlay:
A transparent covering, sometimes made of tissue, that is placed over a page layout for marking instructions for printing or corrections.

overprint:
To print over an area that has already been printed, as opposed to a knock-out.

overrun:
When the number of printed copies exceeds the amount of the originally specified print run.

page composition:
The assembly of the elements on a page, including text and graphics. Also called page makeup or page layout.

page layout:
The assembly of the elements on a page, including text and graphics. Also called page composition or page makeup.

page makeup:
The assembly of the elements on a page, including text and graphics. Also called page composition or page layout.

page proof:
A layout of pages as they will appear in the publication.

pagination:
The process of arranging the pages of a publication in proper sequence.

paper stock:
The paper used for printing a particular piece.

pasteup (noun):
A camera-ready mechanical that includes all the necessary text and artwork.

pasteup (verb):
The process of preparing a camera-ready mechanical for final reproduction.

PE:
Printer's Error. A mistake made by the printer after the originals have been submitted by the client. These types of errors are not charged to the client.

pen name:
A pseudonym used by the author of a book or magazine article.

perf:
Short for perforate.

perfect-bound:
A method of binding in which signatures are folded and collated on top of one another and held together by adhesive, resulting in a squared-off spine which can be printed on.

perfecting press:
A type of printing press that prints on both sides of the paper in one pass.

perforate:
To cut or provide cut marks in a printed sheet.

periodical:
A publication such as a magazine or newspaper that is published at regular intervals.

photostat:
A photographic copy of type or art in the same size or a different size than the original; also known as a stat.

PI ads:
Per Inquiry advertising, in which the publication provides the advertising space for free but receives a percentage of each sale generated by the ad.

pica:
A typographic unit of measure equal to 12 points.

PICT:
Not an acronym, though some people think this stands for Prehistoric, Incompatible, Crummy Tiff-substitute. A standard file format that allows for the exchange of graphic images (usually bitmapped) on the Macintosh.

picture font:
Spot illustrations that are installed in the computer and work like digital fonts or typefaces.

pigment:
The solid particles used in inkmaking that give inks its color, body, and/or opacity.

pixel:
Picture element. The smallest unit of a bitmapped image as displayed on a computer monitor.

plagiarism:
To copy the work of another and claim it as your own.

plate:
The master device that bears the image to be printed. Printing plates can be made from metal, plastic, or paper.

platemaking:
The process of creating printing plates

PMS:
Pantone Matching System. A system of inks, color specifications, and color guides for specifying and reproducing color.

point:
A typographic unit of measure. Traditionally, there are 72.27, 72.29, or 72.3 points to the inch, depending on whom you ask. For the purpose of designating type sizes, most modern publishing applications use 72 points to the inch.

point-of-purchase display:
A box or rack, sometimes made of sturdy cardboard, that displays books or other merchandise near the cash registers of a retail outlet. Also called a POP or a dump.

poor trapping:
An undesirable printing condition in which different color inks do not properly register, causing thin white lines in between colors.

POP:
Point of Purchase. A box or rack, sometimes made of sturdy cardboard, that displays books or other merchandise near the cash registers of a retail outlet. Also called a dump.

portrait:
An image or page that is vertically oriented, as opposed to landscape, which is horizontally oriented.

positioning:
The placement of an ad in a publication.

positive:
Film in which the dark and light areas are the same as the original, as opposed to a film negative.

PostScript:
A page description language (PDL) developed by Adobe Systems Inc. to handle the placement of text and graphics on a page.

preface:
Introductory remarks that may provide the reason for the book along with the goals and scope of the book, written by the author as part of the front matter.

premium:
A book or other piece of merchandise given away as part of a promotion.

prepack:
A point-of-purchase display, often made of cardboard, for holding books or other merchandise.

prepress:
The process of preparing output for printing, such as creating film, checking color, creating proofs, and so on.

prepress proof:
Proofs made by photomechanical means, such as a Cromalin or Matchprint, and sometimes by digital means, in less time and at a lower cost than it takes to create press proofs. Also called off-press proofs.

pre-scored:
Printed material that has received a linear impression to facilitate folding.

press:
The equipment used for mass reproduction of printed materials.

press check:
A method of quality assurance in which the customer actually visits the printing plant as the first few copies of a print job come off the printing press. The customer, assisted by the press operators, checks for accurate color, proper registration, ink coverage, and overall printing quality.

press date:
The date a publication or book goes on press.

press proof:
A final color proof made on a printing press to verify color and printing quality.

press release:
An announcement of a new book or a new product sent to a news organization for publication.

press run:
The total number of copies of a publication to be printed, also called a print run.

press sheet:
A finished printed sample pulled from the beginning of a press run for the purpose of checking color, registration, and other reproduction elements.

print quality:
The properties of the paper that affect its ability to reproduce well.

print run:
The total number of copies of a publication to be printed, also called a press run.

printer's error:
A mistake made by the printer in preparation for printing, as opposed to an author's alteration. Also called a PE.

printer's spread:
The imposition of pages as they will be assembled and reproduced on press, as opposed to a reader's spread, which is how the pages will appear in the final bound publication.

process color:
Four-color reproduction of the full range of colors by the use of four printing plates, one for each of the primary colors: cyan (process blue), magenta (process red), yellow, and black.

progressive proof:
Proofs made from each separate printing plate, showing the sequence of printing as well as the result after each color plate is added to the image.

prologue:
Text that appears at the beginning of a story which sets the stage or introduces the story, as opposed to an epilogue, which appears at the end of a story and offers parting comments.

promotional material:
Brochures or other merchandise designed to publicize and sell a product.

proof (noun):
A reproduction of what the printed job should look like. Can take many forms, such as black-and-white, color, blueline, Matchprint, and so forth.

proof (verb):
Short for proofread. Also means to check the color and position of text and images on a page layout.

proofread:
To edit a manuscript for spelling and punctuation errors.

pseudonym:
An assumed name used to conceal an author's identity. Also called a  pen name.

public domain:
Work that is not protected by copyright.

publication date:
The date on which a book becomes available for purchase, and on which the promotion is slated to peak.

publicist:
A person who prepares promotional materials and schedules media appearances such as a book signing tour.

pull quote:
A quote extracted from the main text of an article and printed in large type on the page, frequently offset with ruled lines or other graphic elements.

QA:
Stands for Quality Assurance (also known as QC, or Quality Control). In printing, the process of checking randomly selected printed pieces as they come off the printing press or out of the bindery to make sure they meet quality standards.

Quark or QuarkXpress:
A popular software program used by designers to assemble text and graphics on a page. QuarkXpress was originally only available for Mac PCs and dominated the magazine industry in the nineties. QuarkXpress has seen considerable competition in recent years from Adobe's InDesign, which replaced the company's earlier Pagemaker product.

QuickTime:
A video compression standard developed by Apple Computer, frequently used for video clips on the World Wide Web.

quick printer:
A vendor that supplies printed materials to consumers and business, specializing in simple print runs of 10,000 or less.

rag left:
Type that is justified (aligned) on the right margin and appears ragged on the left.

rag paper:
Premium paper that contains actual cotton fibers.

rag right:
Type that is justified (aligned) on the left margin and appears ragged on the right.

ragged left:
Type that is justified (aligned) on the right margin and appears ragged on the left.

ragged right:
Type that is justified (aligned) on the left margin and appears ragged on the right.

raster graphic:
See bitmapped graphic.

rasterization:
The process of converting mathematical and digital information into a series of dots using an imagesetter for the purpose of producing film negatives or positives.

reader's spread:
How the pages will appear in the final, bound publication, as opposed to a printer's spread, which is how the pages are arranged to be printed on press.

recto:
The right-hand page of a publication.

reflective art:
Illustrations that must be photographed by light reflected from its surface for reproduction, such as photographs and drawings.

reflow:
An undesirable occurrence in which the line breaks in digitally typeset copy change due to alterations in the layout.

register:
The fitting of two or more printing images on the same paper in exact alignment with each other.

registration mark:
Crosshairs or other graphic devices applied to originals prior to reproduction for positioning films in proper register (alignment).

remnant space:
Advertising space in a magazine or newspaper that has not been sold at the regular rate and is available at a discount.

reprint:
To print a article or portion of a magazine using the original materials.

repro:
Short for reproduction proof.

reproduction proof:
Camera-ready pages ready for platemaking.

resolution:
The degree of precision in position and detail that can be obtained by an output device such as an imagesetter, or the sampling ability of an input device such as a scanner. Often measured in dots per inch.

retouch:
To alter a photograph or illustration, either manually or digitally.

returns:
Unsold books or magazines that are returned from the retailer or distributor to the publisher for credit.

reverse:
To print an image or text in the opposite of the background color, such as white type on a black background.

revise:
To change the original materials as previously printed or proofed.

RGB:
Red, Green, Blue. The hues of the additive color system.

right-angle fold:
Two or more folds that are at right angles to each other.

rights:
The permissions granted by a copyright owner that allow someone else to sell the copyrighted work, such as the rights to print, publish, and sell the hardcover version of a book, or the translation rights, the film and television rights, or the electronic rights.

RIP:
Raster Image Processor. A device that converts the description of a page from high-level PDL coding to low-level scanning instructions for an imagesetter.

roman:
The unmodified version of a typeface, with no bold or italics applied.

rosette:
The flower-like pattern created when the four CMYK color halftone screens are printed at the traditional angles.

rough layout:
A preliminary arrangement of graphics and dummy text on a page to determine length.

royalty:
A percentage of a book's gross or net sales paid to the author as specified in the author/publisher agreement.

rule:
A line of varying thickness used for graphic effect in a page layout.

run-in:
A proofreader's notation to indicate that the text should not be broken, as with a new paragraph.

runaround:
The space around the edges of a picture or other graphic
the defines where text must be.

running copy:
The body text of an article or story.

running foot:
A headline or title that is repeated at the bottom of each page.

running head:
A headline or title that is repeated at the top of each page.

running text:
A phrase, chapter title, or other text that is repeated at the top or bottom of a page.

saddle-stitched:
A form of binding that uses staple-shaped wires through the gutter fold; also called saddle-wired.

sans serif:
A typeface without serifs.

SASE:
Self-Addressed, Stamped Envelope. Required in any unsolicited material sent to book publishers so that the inquiring author will receive a response from the publisher.

saturation:
A measure of the purity of a color, determined by the amount of gray it contains. The higher the gray level, the lower the saturation.

scale:
To reduce or enlarge an image or a page proportionally.

scaling:
The process of determining the amount an image should be reduced or enlarged to fit a specified area.

scanner:
A device used to turn hardcopy output such as paper, slides, or transparencies into digital information for the purpose of manipulating and reproducing on the computer.

screen frequency:
The number of lines per inch (LPI) or dots per inch (DPI) in a halftone screen.

score (noun):
The indented line in a sheet of paper that makes it easier to fold.

score (verb):
To indent a line in the paper that makes it easier to fold.

screen:
Short for halftone screen. The reproduction of  continuous-tone artwork, such as a photograph, by screening the image into dots of various sizes. When printed, the dots merge to give the illusion of continuous tone.

screen angles:
The angles at which halftone screens are placed in order to avoid undesirable screen patterns, called moirés.

search and replace:
The process of automatically locating a specific word or symbol in a word processing or page layout file and replacing it with another word or symbol.

self cover:
A cover made from the same paper as the interior pages of the publication.

self mailer:
A brochure that can be mailed as a standalone piece without the use of an envelope.

separation:
A film negative or positive to be used for each printing plate.

serif:
The small strokes at the end of the main strokes of letterforms.

service bureau:
An organization that provides output services to publishers and design shops in the form of high-resolution film, paper output, and color proofs, as well as scanning and other services.

shadow:
The darkest parts of a photograph, represented by the largest dots in a halftone.

sharpen:
To heighten the contrast between the dark and light tones of an image.

sheet-fed:
A type of printing press that accepts paper in the form of sheets, as opposed to a web-fed press, which accepts paper in the form of webs, or rolls.

sheetwise:
To print one side of the paper with one plate, then to turn the sheet over and print the other side with another plate but using the same gripper and side guide.

short run:
A print run of less than 10,000.

show-through:
An undesirable condition in printing in which the ink on one side of the paper is visible from the other side under normal lighting conditions.

signature:
A group of pages brought together into proper order and alignment following folding. Typically the pages printed on one larger sheet of paper. 16 pages is a typical signature in web offset printing.

silhouette halftone:
A halftone with all screen background removed.

silk screen:
A printing method in which ink is pushed through a stencil, used for imprinting T-shirts and heavier paper stocks.

simultaneous submission:
A manuscript or query letter that is sent to more than one publisher for consideration at the same time.

sinkage:
The extra white space at the top of a chapter opener.

six-color:
A printing process that uses six different colors, for example, the standard four-color process inks (cyan, magenta, yellow, and black) plus two spot colors.

six-up:
The imposition of six items to be printed on the same sheet in order to take advantage of full press capacity and minimize paper consumption.

skid:
A platform that holds a pile of cut sheets in a printing plant.

slug:
A short phrase or word that identifies an article as it goes through the production process; usually placed at the top corner of submitted copy.

slush pile:
The pile of unsolicited manuscripts and query letters accumulated by a publisher.

small caps:
A set of capital letters of a particular typeface made in the same height as the lowercase letters of the same face.

soft copy:
The digital version of a manuscript or typeset copy before it is printed to paper.

soft hyphen:
A hyphen inserted into a word, using a specific command in a page layout program, that will not remain if the text happens to reflow.

soft proof:
A proof of an image or page layout on a computer monitor, as opposed to a hard proof, which is on paper of some other tangible substrate.

soft return:
To create a new line ending, using a specific command in a page layout program, that will not remain if the text happens to reflow.

sp:
Short for "spelling." A proofreader's mark used to signify that the spelling of a particular word should be checked.

spec (noun):
Short for specification. The characteristics of typeset copy, such as typeface, point size, and leading, or the characteristics of a process color expressed in various percentages, or any set of specific instructions for reproducing an image or a page layout.

spec (verb):
To determine and communicate the characteristics of typeset copy, color, or other aspects of a page layout.

specification:
The characteristics of typeset copy, such as typeface, point size, and leading, or the characteristics of a process color expressed in various percentages, or any set of specific instructions for reproducing an image or a page layout.

spectrum:
The complete range of colors, from blue (short wavelengths) to red (long wavelengths).

spot color:
A single solid (or screened) color printed using one separation plate, as opposed to a process color printed using two or more separation plates.

spot illustration:
A small drawing, usually abstract, that provides graphic interest to an article or story that may not lend itself to other types of illustration such as photographs or charts.

spot varnish:
a clear coating applied to a specific area of a printed piece or page that provides protection as well as a dull or glossy appearance, depending on the type of varnish.

spread:
Two facing pages of a publication.

SRDS:
Standard Rate and Data Service. A reference used by advertising agencies to determine advertising rates and other statistics of various print and broadcast media.

stat:
A photographic copy of type or art in the same size or a different size than the original; also known as a photostat.

stay-flat binding:
A form of binding perfect-bound publications in which the cover spine is not actually glued to the edges of the bound pages so the book lays flatter when opened. Also called lay-flat binding.

step-and-repeat:
The process of repeating an image or a group of images by "stepping" it into position using a predetermined measurement. This can be accomplished digitally in many page layout programs, or manually using photomechanics.

stet:
Latin abbreviation of "let it stand." A proofreader's mark that means copy previously marked for correction should remain as it was.

stiffness:
The ability of paper to resist bending and/or support its own weight.

stochastic screening:
An alternative to conventional screening methods in which an image is color-separated using fine, randomly placed dots rather than geometrically aligned halftone dots.

stock:
The type of paper or other material that will be used for printing.

style guide:
A manual that outlines accepted usage of a corporate identity such as logos and letterheads, as well as the correct spelling of commonly used industry terminology.

style sheet:
A system for a group of character attributes and paragraph formats that can be applied in one step to a paragraph or range of paragraphs.

subhead:
A secondary line of text that appears after a headline, or a word or phrase that precedes a block of body text.

subsidiary rights:
Additional rights that can be licensed to a publisher by the copyright owner for an additional fee, such as translation rights, television and movie rights, and electronic rights.

subsidy press:
A publisher who charges the author to print the author's book, also called a vanity press.

substrate:
The media on which something is printed, such as paper, vellum, cardboard, or cloth.

subtitle:
A sentence or phrase that appears after the title of a book.

subtractive color:
Color produced by using cyan, magenta, and yellow inks printed on white paper to absorb, or subtract, the red, green, and blue portions of the spectrum in the printing process.

subtractive primaries:
Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, and Black (CMYK). The hues used for process color printing inks.

suppress printout:
A command in page layout programs that allows the user to prevent an image or a page from printing.

SWOP:
Specifications for Web-Offset Publications. A booklet that provides the web-offset specifications for separations, proofing, and printing process color in Europe.

syndicate:
An organization that licenses and releases articles and stories for simultaneous release.

syndication:
When a work is simultaneously licensed by and released to various media, such as newspapers or radio stations.

tab:
A pre-specified space for vertically aligning text.

table of contents:
A chart that features the sections of a book, magazine, or other published work, along with page numbers. Also called a TOC.

table of illustrations:
A chart that lists the illustrations, credits and page numbers in a published work.

tagline:
An identifying line of text that appears at the top or bottom of a printed page that shows the file name, page number, date, and/or time.

tail-piece:
A small ornament at the end of a chapter or story. Also called an end-of-story icon or symbol.

tearsheet:
Advertisements or articles torn from the pages of a magazine and used as proof by the publisher or the advertising agency that a particular ad or article appeared in a particular issue.

technical edit:
A review of a manuscript by an expert in the field, also called an expert reading.

template:
A preformatted document that is protected from overwriting and can be used repeatedly to create new documents.

text:
The body type of a page, as opposed to headlines,  captions, and other type.

text paper:
Any fine-quality printing paper.

text wrap:
Running text that contours the shape of another object such as an illustration.

three-up:
The imposition of three items to be printed on the same sheet in order to take advantage of full press capacity and minimize paper consumption.

TIFF:
Tagged Image File Format. A standard graphic format for the storage of high-resolution (greater than 72 dpi) scanned images that can be imported into a page layout program.

tint (noun):
A solid color that has been screened back less than 100% to create a lighter shade of that particular color.

tint (verb):
To screen a solid color back by less than 100% to make it lighter.

tipping in:
To insert a smaller publication into a larger one, such as a pull-out  pamphlet in a magazine.

tissue overlay:
A transparent covering made of tissue that is placed over a page layout for marking instructions for printing or corrections.

title:
The name of a book, magazine or other published work.

tonal range:
The difference between the brightest and the darkest tone in a photograph or offset lithographic print.

tooth:
A characteristic of paper in which the finish is slightly rough, allowing it to readily take printing ink.

toothiness:
The property of paper that allows it to readily take printing ink.

touchplate:
A fifth or higher plate used in four-color process printing, usually to strengthen a specific color.

tracking:
The overall space between letters in typeset text. Tracking can be adjusted to tighten or loosen the letterspacing.

trade publisher:
A publisher who publishes books primarily for the book trade, selling books to bookstores and libraries.

transpose:
To exchange the position of a letter, word, phrase, sentence, or image with another.

trap:
To print one ink or color over another ink or color in order to avoid thin white lines between colors.

trapping:
A method of overlapping adjoining colors or inks that helps minimize the possibility of a fine white line appearing between two colors, caused by misalignment of color plates on press.

trim:
To cut the excess paper from the edges of a publication after it has been printed and bound.

trim mark:
Vertical or horizontal lines placed outside the margins of a page to indicate where the paper should be cut. Also called crop marks.

trim size:
The size of a page after it has been trimmed.

two-color:
A published piece that is created using only two colors, whether they are spot or process colors.

two-sided:
Paper that has a different texture or consistency on each side, also called  duplex paper.

two-up:
The imposition of two items to be printed on the same sheet in order to take advantage of full press capacity and minimize paper consumption.

typeface:
A set of characters that share a distinctive and consistent design.

typeset:
The process of applying style specifications such as typeface and point size to raw text.

typesetter:
A person who applies style specifications such as typeface and point size to raw text.

typo:
A typographical error in a published work, such as a misspelling or missing letter.

uncoated:
Paper with no finish applied to it (either glossy or matte) to create a more porous printing surface.

underrun:
When a printer manufacturers fewer printed copies than originally specified.

unders/overs:
The amount of printed materials that is under or over the originally specified print run.

underlying grid:
A term used to describe the the margins, columns and gutters of a page.

upload:
To send a file to another computer, as opposed to download, which means to retrieve a file from another computer.

uppercase:
The capital letters of a typeface.

UV coating:
A protective, ultra-violet, glossy transparent finish applied to a printed piece to minimize ink chipping, scratching, and other damage from normal use.

vanity press:
A publisher who charges the author to print the author's book, also called a subsidy press.

varnish:
A thin, clear coating applied to a printed piece for protection or special effect.

vector-based:
Graphics defined by groups of lines, circles, text, and other objects, as opposed to bitmapped graphics, which are defined by pixels. Also called object-oriented graphics.

verso:
The left-hand page of a publication.

vignette:
An illustration in which the background fades gradually away.

visual:
Artwork.

walk-off:
A condition in which a part of an image on a plate deteriorates during printing.

warm color:
A color containing yellow or red.

watermark:
A design that is subtly impressed on a sheet of paper by raising the pattern of the dandy roll during papermaking.

web:
A roll of paper used in web printing (as opposed to sheet-fed printing).

web press or wbe offset:
A printing press that uses rolls (webs) of paper rather than sheets. Also called web-fed press.

weight:
The thickness of a line or typeface. Also, the density of paper measured in pounds.

widow:
The end of a paragraph or beginning of a column of text that is undesirably short:
a single short word or the end of a hyphenated word.

wire service:
A news-gathering service that sells information and stories to its subscribers, such as Associated Press.

woodcut:
A style of illustration in which lines of varying thickness are cut in relief on plank-grain wood for the purpose of making prints. The same effect can be achieved digitally in a drawing program.

word spacing:
The amount of space between each word in typeset text.

work and tumble:
To print one side of a sheet of paper, then turn the sheet over from gripper edge to back using the same side guide and plate to print the second side.

work and turn:
To print one side of a sheet of paper, then turn the sheet over from left to right using the same gripper and plate to print the second side.

workaround:
A manual procedure implemented in order to overcome a shortcoming of a program or piece of equipment.

working head:
A preliminary headline used in a story before the final headline is decided upon.

working title:
A preliminary title used to refer to a book as it is being written and before the official title is decided upon.

WYSIWYG:
What You See Is What You Get. An accurate screen representation of final output.

X-acto knife:
A cutting device used for making precise cuts in typeset copy, page layouts, or other artwork for the purpose of pasting it onto artboards.

x-height:
The height of a lowercase "x" in a particular typeface.

yellow:
One of the subtractive primaries (cyan, magenta, yellow, and black) used in four-color process inks.

24-bit, 32-bit color:
Allows up to 16.7 million different colors on a computer monitor. 32-bit color provides for masking and other complex operations in image-editing programs such as Adobe Photoshop.


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